|Posted: Thu Apr 06, 2006 5:32 am Post subject: The Nazi Hydra In America: The Pro-Nazis of the 1930s.
| The Nazi Hydra In America.
The 1930s: Nazis Parading on Main Street Part 6: The Pro-Nazis of the 1930s
by Glen Yeadon and John Hawkins
After the fall of France, a speech by Lindbergh aroused the fiery Secretary of Interior, Harold Ickles to form his own investigation committee. Ickles coordinated a private investigation, exposing Nazi propaganda. This group was headed by T.H. Tetens, also the author of two of the books cited in the bibliography. The three-man task force soon presented Ickles with shocking evidence. The Nazis in Germany were spending money on behalf of far right groups within the United States. Recipients of the German funds included the Christian Mobilizers, the Silver Shirts, Father Coughlin and others. Ickles presented the evidence to the attorney general and in the next year such groups found themselves subjects of investigations. FDR knew of Ickles plan and encouraged selective leaks to the media and to the FBI.116
George Eggleston provides a good example of far right groups in America receiving aid from the Nazis. In 1941, Eggleston began publishing Scribner’s Commentator, a mass circulated magazine. The magazine was secretly subsidized from the German Embassy.
Eggleston had access to laundered funds from the estate of the Charles Payson, a millionaire admirer of Lindbergh. Eggleston located his publishing headquarters at Lake Geneva, NY. There he received instructions from Germany via shortwave radio for a second publication he undertook, The Herald. The Herald was even more pro Nazi and smacked of Goebbels like propaganda. Thomsen, charge d affaires of the German Embassy was impressed with the Herald and strived to place it in the hands of American servicemen.118
Following the bombing of Pearl on December 12, 1941 the American First Committee officially disbanded. However, on December 17, 1941 meeting in the home of Sibley Webster, a wealthy Wall Street broker a number of key American First members including Charles Lindbergh reformed under the new name Americans for Peace. The following quote from that meeting came from Horace Haase a former American Firster leaves no doubt about the future activities of those gathered.
"It is obviously necessary for the leaders of the America First like Wood and Webster to keep quiet. But the organization should not be destroyed. I have never been in the limelight and have nothing to lose. I can remain active in a quiet way. I should like to offer to keep the files. We must get ready for the next attack which must be made upon this communistic administration." 41
Nor was Haase alone in his sentiments. Four days after the bombing of Pearl the National Copperheads a west coast group closely associated with the American First Committee met in Los Angles. Ellis Jones appearing before the meeting stated:
"The Japanese have a right to Hawaii. I would rather be in this war on the side of Germany than on the side of the British."42
Thus, began the battle for the minds of the people as similar statements along with the often-repeated cry for the impeachment of Roosevelt were repeated across America. Many of the followers, sensibilities firmly offended, deserted the pro-fascist groups in droves. However, the hard core fascists and their leaders simply began a vicious whispering campaign meant to destroy the morale of both the soldiers and the public. Such comments as: " Our armed forces are weak, The cost of the war will bankrupt the nation, The Chinese and British will make a separate peace with Japan and Germany, Stalin is getting too strong, and Bolshevism will sweep over Europe" were often overheard and repeated in this campaign for the people’s minds.
The pro-fascist newspaper chains went into overdrive after the bombing of Pearl as the following quotes indicate:
" This great war seems to be in the hands of inexperienced civilians who have proven uniformly unsuccessful in managing the country’s affairs in time of
peace, and are now displaying a more dangerous incompetence in time of war" Hearst’s New York Journal-American March 17, 1942.
"Of course Russia is not a full partner of the United Nations. She is a semi-partner of the Axis." Hearst’s New York Journal-American March 17,1942"60
Starting in February 1942 the pro-Nazis had their hopes dashed. There was no panic in America just anger directed at the Axis nations and their conspirators and fifth column agents inside the country. Beginning in February several unregistered agents for Germany were arrested and sent to prison, the most notable being Laura Ingalls. By April, Father Coughlin’s Social Justice and William Pelly’s The Galilean newsletters were banned from the mail due to their seditious content. Special grand juries were being convened across America to investigate propaganda and seditious acts.
The leaders of many of the pro-fascist groups simply went underground and began a nasty whispering campaign in the hopes of destroying the morale of both the soldiers and the public. The whispering campaign was not unlike the one that the Republican leadership unleashed against Senator John McCain in his bid for the presidential nomination in 2000 at the urging of the George Bush Jr. campaign. The rumors viciously attacked McCain for a bad temper and suggested that the former war hero was mentally unfit due to his capture by North Vietnam. Some of the attacks went so far as to claim McCain was a Manchurian candidate of his former captors. The attack on McCain serves to remind us how effective these whispering campaigns can be.
The opposition to the war came to a climax on July 23, 1942 when the Department of Justice indicted twenty-seven men and one woman for sedition. 43 The entire legal process was poorly managed and badly bungled. Some were found guilty and sentenced to jail terms such as Pelly (in another trial) others such as Dilling were found innocent. 44 A review of the list of those indicted reveals that none of the real leaders or financial backers were indicted. Instead, those indicted were rather low level leaders or nothing more than noisy gadflies. The only trial that ever charged any of the real leaders was the previously mentioned trial of the Chicago Tribune. After sixty years only a few of the names of those indicted warrant more than a footnote in history.
One of those indicted, William Dudley Pelly and his group, the Silver Shirts warrants a closer look in studying the evolution of native fascism in the United States. Pelly founded the Silver Shirts on January 31, 1933 in Asheville, North Carolina the day Hitler took power in Germany describing the group as a Christian militia. Throughout the 30s and up until Pelly's indictment for sedition, the Silver Shirts were one of the largest pro-Nazi groups and one of the more violent. Pelly was the son of a Methodist minister who believed that Jews were the children of Satan.47 His intense hate of Jews came from when he was a missionary traveling with the American Expedition Force in Russia during the last phase of the WWI. There, he learned from the White Russians a bitter hatred for the Jews. This hatred was later reinforced when Pelly was fired as a screenwriter for Hollywood moguls.
Due to their extreme racist and anti-Semitic views, the Silver Shirts became popular in areas of the country where the Klan was strong in the 1920s. They were particularly strong in the Pacific Northwest and largely took over the void left after the Klan split apart in Oregon and Washington in the 1920s. The Silver Shirts were openly pro-Hitler and formed alliances with both the American Bund and the Klan.
If it were not for their lingering influence on the evolution of fascist groups in America, they would be as forgettable as any of the other 700 plus fascist groups from the 1930s. However, many of today's far right groups can trace their ancestry directly to the Silver Shirts. The Posse Comitatus’ founder Henry Lamont Beach was a leader of the Silver Shirts in Oregon. Likewise, Richard Butler the founder of the Aryan Nations in Hayden Lake, Idaho was also a Silver Shirter as well as a former Klansmen. 45 Here we have direct links between today's right wing and the past fascists groups of the 30s. Butler still uses the Nazi salute at Hayden Lake years after the end of the war.55
Gerald L. K. Smith one of the founders of today’s Christian Identity religion was perhaps the most influential former Silver Shirt member as the Identity religion provides the common bond among many of the right wing extremist groups today. 46 It is the religion that is common to the Posse, the Aryan nations and many of the militias and Klan groups.
It is the intolerant and blinding hatred of minorities among the religious fundamentalists that binds the fascists groups of the 1930s to today's right wing extremist groups. Much of the hate today can be directly traced back to those 1930’s ministries of hate. The roots of today’s tele-evangelists can be traced back to the 1930s. The media may have changed from radio to television but the format is unchanged from the style of format Father Coughlin used in the 1930s. His radio broadcasts reached millions, as did his followers in his organizations. His sermons were filled with virulent hate of Jews, communism and Roosevelt. Pat Robertson’s, Jerry Falwell’s or any of the other teleevangelists programs follow the same format today. Only today they carefully disguise their hate of Jews and substitute hate of gays, welfare (read that as the poor), abortion, unions or any other and liberal program designed to help the poor or working man and of course Clinton has replaced Roosevelt as an object for their scorn.
Coughlin was probably the most influential of all the preachers during the 30s. He certainly commanded the largest following, and was something of a central figure or unifier of the various groups. One such group of followers was the Christian Crusade which had as its goal the establishment of a so-called Christian government modeled upon the corporate-clerical state of Franco.48 Other groups associated with Coughlin were the Christian Front which was his primary group, many of the various mothers movement groups as well as the American First Committee. Politically Coughlin opposed any aid to Britain, the draft and any bill that would be a deterrent to Germany and Hitler. Often times his opposition bordered on sedition, although he was never charged with sedition. His ministry of hate, for the most part, ended with the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
Three other ministers of hate from this period deserve special mention before moving on Gerald Smith, Gerald Winrod and Wesley Swift. Swift had direct connections with the Nazis and is another who is credited with leading the Identity movement. He also was a member of the Klan. Billy Hargis, who later gained fame in the 1950s and early 60s, was an associate of Winrod.
Both Winrod and Smith were disciples of Coughlin. Winrod came close to winning election as a senator from Kansas and at the time was known as the Jayhawk Nazi. Smith was closely associated with Huey Long and after his death attempted to take over Long’s political machine. Smith was also a member of Pelly’s Silver Shirts.
Although Coughlin was the most widely recognized religious figure from the Nazi movement during the 30s, it is arguable that Gerald K. Smith was the most influential in the long term. Smith was well known in the 1930s, but he did not have as large of a following as Coughlin. However, Smith’s influence can be seen in many of the right wing groups today. The great unifier among the right wing groups today is religion just as it was in the 30s. Many of today’s right wing extremist groups believe in the Identity religion. A religion based on hate of Jews. Smith is largely credited in founding the Identity religion. Thus, Smith's influence extends to today while Coughlin’s died with the bombing of Pearl even though Coughlin had more followers at the time.
Smith was an assistant in Coughlin's Christian Front and an associate of Henry Ford. He was an ordained minister in the Disciples of Christ Church and was a virulent anti-Semitic who gained notoriety by staging a Passion Play in Louisiana. But unlike Coughlin, who disappeared from the national scene by the end of the war, Smith went on to found the Christian Defense League (CDF), somewhat of an survivalist offshoot of the Klan. The CDF's publication "The Cross and the Flag" was among the first pamphlets to use the Identity religion.
One of Smith's assistants in his Christian Anti-Communist Crusade was Dr. Wesley Swift, who is widely regarded as one of the icons of the Identity religion today. Swift was one of the first to assert a need for paramilitary groups, and formed the racist California Rangers group, a core group from the Minutemen. Swift also founded the Church of Jesus Christ-Christian in 1946. Later after Butler and Swift had a falling out. Butler then moved his ministry of hate to Hayden Lake, Idaho where it is forms the basis of the many varied racist groups there such as the Aryan Nations and the former Order.
An associate of Swift's was Colonel William Gale. Gale ran for Governor of California in 1958 on a pro-segregation ticket and was a former aide to Douglas MacArthur. He also founded a church based on the Identity religion, the Ministry of Christ. Gale was also the founder of the Posse Comitatus. Both Swift and Gale recruited Richard Butler, the head of the Aryan Nations.49
This clear line of succession or evolution from Smith to the present day leaves Smith as more influential than Coughlin. This line of succession also establishes an irrefutable link between the pro-Nazis of the 1930s and the far right groups of today.
Least the reader assume that it was only the fringe religious hacks that were involved with the Nazis, there is the example of the Southern Baptist minister, M. E.Dodd. Dodd was a resident of Louisiana and made headlines for attending the 1934 Baptist World Convention in Berlin. Dodd was an extreme racist--- even more so than Smith--- and praised the Nazis. Dodd justified Hitler's gestapo tactics against the Jews by linking Jews with communism. 50 He considered the Jews in Germany to be outside agitators similar to the racial agitators in the south. To be fair some Baptists did denounce the Nazis, but the Alabama Baptists followed Dodd's views.
Dodd was not merely a minister in the Baptist church. He was one of the leaders of the Southern Baptists. He was also the first Baptist minister to deliver a sermon over the air waves on January 5, 1941.51 With people like Dodd holding leading positions of authority in the largest church in the south, it should not be surprising that until the 1960s the churches were just another instrument of segregation. Nor can one help but wonder how much of Dodd’s anti-Semitism is still with the Southern Baptists especially in light of the number of Baptist that attended the Fourth Annual Super Conference of Christian Israel Churches in 1997. Pastor Everett Ramsey of the Faith Baptist Church of Houston, Missouri hosted this conference promoting the Identity religion.68 This close association of Southern Baptist with the Identity religion---with its roots grounded in fascism--- has led to the recent announcement of the Baptists to try and convert Jews to Christianity.52 Jewish leaders have described the proscribed guidelines of this Southern Baptist conversion as insulting and condescending.
Many of the far right groups today are trying to distance themselves from their racist roots or at least cloak them from public view in order to attract followers. However, the common bond between many of these far right groups remains the Identity religion.
There are other sources as well for today’s racism, including the alliance between the Klan and the American Bund in the 1930s. Some have attributed this alliance with the increase in violence in the Identity movement. Nevertheless, for the most part the Klan is a mere shadow of its former self. One should not dismiss the threat posed by klansmen but from a political point of view, they remain ineffectual. A Galllup Poll released on July 27, 1970 showed that only 3% of the public viewed the Klan in a favorable light while 75% regarded the Klan in a highly unfavorable light. 53 The favorable number has probably risen slightly with the increase in right wing extremist groups during the 1980s but for most Americans the Klan is still a pariah.
A greater source of concern in the opinion of the writer is the Pioneer Fund, a group that had direct links with Hitler and the Nazis. Wickliffe Draper, an heir to the giant textile machinery manufacture, the Draper Corporation, established the Pioneer Fund in 1937. Draper was an extreme racist and a staunch anti-unionist as early as the days of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial. Other objects of his hatred were the United Nations, John Kennedy, anyone on the Nye committee and liberals. His hatred for those on the Nye committee for attempting to charge the du Ponts with war profiteering led to his deliberate persecution of Alger Hiss between 1948 and 1951.
Draper and his associate Harry Laughlin created "The Model Eugenics Laws in America" which Hitler used to write the Nuremberg Laws. Laughlin received an honorary degree from the University of Hiedelburg in 1936; both men had other direct ties to Hitler and Nazi Germany. Draper and Laughlin were the source of the laws in the United States for the involuntary sterilization of institutionalized Americans in 24 states that adopted such laws that led directly to the sterilization of over 75,000 Americans.54
However, the real danger of the Pioneer Fund is in the amount of political clout and financial backing it has to propagate racism ever since it was founded. Among the original directors of the Pioneer Fund who endorsed the policies of eugenics was John Marshall Harlan II, who was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1957.55
On September 12, 1963, the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission received a notification from Morgan Guaranty Trust Co that an anonymous gift of one hundred thousand dollars had been granted with the condition that the source of the gift had to be kept confidential. The money was to be used in the fight against civil rights. Additional money was forth coming from the Pioneer Fund and was used in a broadside attack on civil rights. 55 The Pioneer Fund has also been linked as the source of funds for anti-bussing programs.58
After thirty years it is hard to find direct links in any political group, people die and ideology evolves, and at best, one can only show an evolving linkage. However, in this case, the linkage is direct with Draper still expounding his racist Nazi views. Once again, we see how the elite supported the fascist cause and can shape public opinion through propaganda.
The Pioneer Fund is also the source of much of the funding for book titles that like the Bell Curve is nothing more than racist drivel cloaked under the disguise of science. The Bell Curve is inherently false and used much of the work provided by the Pioneer Fund. One of the chief beneficiaries of the Pioneer Fund has been Roger Pearson, thereby linking the Liberty Lobby with the Pioneer Fund. The Pioneer Fund was also one of the driving forces behind Proposition 187 the anti-alien ballot measure on the 1994 California ballot. Presently the following noteworthy Republican politicians have been linked with the Pioneer Fund: Jesse Helms 56 and Steve Forbes.57
By using the Pioneer Fund as an example we have establish a direct link between a Nazi group of the thirties to both past and present political connections that have resulted in some dark moments for the nation and its legal system.
The Pioneer Fund was established on racial hate and it remains an institution based on hate. An example of the extreme hate of these groups from the 30s comes from a member of the Mother’s Movement, Lucinda Benge. Benge charged that white sailors were given blood transfusions from Blacks and Orientals, making them ill and likely to father Black or Yellow children.59
Such a statement is ridiculous but it does reveal the rabid hate of these groups. For those readers that think we have moved beyond such rabid hate, the writer would like to remind the reader that he had a friend in college during the late 60s early 70s whose father was delaying an operation. The reason for the delay was that he had a previous operation and did not recover as quickly as he had thought he should and he blamed in on that n****r blood they had gave him. Such bigotry still remains strong throughout the midwest, in a later chapter the anti-Jewish sentiment will be detailed in the rise of the Posse Comitatus in the 1980s.
Perhaps, the most influential right wing political group today was formed from the remnants of three fascist groups of the 1930s. The American Security Council (ACS) was formed in 1955 from members of the pro fascists groups: the American First Committee, the American Vigilante Intelligence Federation, and the American Coalition of Patriotic Societies.62 The American Vigilante organization was the product of the notorious pro-fascist Harry Jung while the Coalition of Patriotic Societies was closely associated with eugenics and the previously mentioned Pioneer Fund. The American Vigilant Intelligence Foundation was founded in 1927. The foundation collected large sums of money from such corporate donors as Sears, A.B. Dick, International Harvester and First National Bank.114 The person most responsible for establishing both the American First Committee and the ACS was the reactionary head of Sears and Roebuck, retired General Robert Wood.
The American First Committee began as the idea of a young Yale College student, Douglas Stuart Jr. Stuart was the son of the first vice president of Quaker Oats. The reader should note the case of the nut never dropping far from the tree, as Quaker Oats was a later member of the ACS. Nor was the American First Committee the only group with connections to Quaker Oats. One of the founding members of the Church League was a vice president of Quaker Oats. Stuart attended the 1940 Republican Party Convention and consorted with the isolationists.
Charles Lindbergh had already shown and interest in Stuart’s idea of uniting all opposition to the forth-coming war under one umbrella group. With Lindbergh's advice, the young Stuart sought out the aid of General Robert E. Wood. Wood was a strong isolationists and apologist for Hitler. Soon afterwards, the American First Committee was incorporated, with Wood at the helm. William H. Regnery was one of the signers of the incorporation. 63
The American First group was underwritten by business leaders. John Foster Dulles wrote the charter. Eight business leaders supplied over $100,000. Included in this list of business leaders was H. Smith Richardson. Both the Regnery Publishing Company and the Smith Richardson Foundation played prominent roles in the effort to derail the Clinton administration.
William R. Castle a former under secretary of state under Hoover was also instrumental in the launching of the American First Committee. Castle was a scion of a wealthy family from Hawaii. He believed that only the wealthy should be allowed to serve in the diplomat corp. Castle opposed sending any aid to China despite Japanese aggression in China. Former President Hoover remained a secret member of the committee.
The American First Committee was not founded originally to help the Nazis but under the direction of General Wood the American First Committee soon allowed admission of any pro-Nazi including Dudley's Silver Shirts and Klan members and became the mouth piece of pro-Nazi propaganda. Even Laura Ingalls the Nazi agent was a member. Ralph Townsend was another member and held a leadership role in San Francisco, he was also a paid agent of the Japanese government. Garland Alderman also held a leadership role in Michigan, and was a member of the Nazi inspired National Workers League. He was later indicted on sedition charges. Dellmore Lessard was the Oregon State Chairmen of the American First Committee but was forced to resigned after it was disclosed he had accepted funds from the Nazi controlled Kyffhaeuserbund.64 The American First Committee was successful in bringing many of the pro-fascist groups under one umbrella group.89
The American First group grew quickly thanks in part to the wealthy founders and slick promotion. The group quickly reached around 800,000 members. The group benefited from the publicity operations of Quaker Oats, Sears, and Hormel. Due to the ties of Hormel the large advertising firm of Batton, Barton, Durstine and Osborn also contributed to promoting the group. Former President Herbert Hoover was a secret member of the group. FDR had his own sources of intelligence about the American First group. One such source was Walter Winchell. From Winchell, Roosevelt learned that Thomas Dewey was negotiating to take over the group. However, with Dewey’s presidential ambitions he backed off and distanced himself somewhat.117
With the following background on the American First Committee it would be surprising any knowledgeable person would defend it as a patriot organization. However, in a venom laced diatribe as a response to the former mayor of New York, Ed Koch perennial presidential candidate Pat Buchanan did just that. Buchanan has other embarrassing ties to fascism as well. In the response, Buchanan listed four names that had signed a recruiting poster for the American First at Yale Law School: Bob Stuart, Eugene Loche, Potter Stewart and Gerald Ford. He also listed three additional members Senator Peter Dominick, Sargent Shriver and Kingman Brewester.65 Brewester later became president of Yale, a university that has close ties with employing former Nazi war criminals. While president of Yale, Brewester appointed Tracy Barnes as a special assistant in charge of community relations. Barnes was an operations officer for the OSS during the war and resigned a high level CIA position to accept the offer. Barnes was the CIA officer that organized the overthrow of the Arbenz government of Guatemala and selected E. Howard Hunt as his political officer for the team.66
William Regnery was also one of the founders of the American Security Council, he was later replaced by his son Henry. Regnery and two other isolationists began broadcasting Human Events and in 1947 started the Regnery publishing business. Interesting enough the first two titles published by Regnery were critical of the Nuremberg Trials. The third book Regnery published was another pro-Nazi book attacking the allies air campaign. In 1954, Regnery published two books for the John Birch Society. He was also the publisher behind Buckley’s God and Man at Yale. In light of the publishing of the pro-Nazi books, it is interesting to note that Regnery Publishing was subsidized by the CIA according to Howard Hunt. The reader is reminded to remember this point in a later chapter concerning the CIA and its involvement with Nazi war criminals.
Henry Regnery along with Bunker Hunt funded Western Goals an organization that is now dead. Western Goals was another group that reportedly compiled list of people they deemed subversive. In 1986, Reagan appointed Alfred Regnery to help dismantle the Justice Department's Office of Juvenile Justice.67 In the 1990s the Regnery publishing house has been the publisher of numerous venomous smears (I would use the word "books" but that would be a lie by any measure) attacking President Clinton. Once again, a direct linkage between the past pro-Nazi groups of the 1930s and today’s right wing has been fully established.
The American Security Council had a large degree of influence on the Reagan administration as well as many of the more hotly debated issues between the 1950s and the 1980s. A more detailed look of the ACS will follow in later chapters. In the brief passages in this chapter it has been established that the ACS rose from the remnants of three pro-fascists groups of the thirties and pursued a path of promoting the fascist agenda of extreme anti-unionism and anti-liberalism which will be made clear in the later chapters.
It now has been over seventy years since 1930, yet few Americans know about the concerted effort of the Nazis to create domestic turmoil within the United States. Fewer Americans know about the fascist plot to overthrow Roosevelt. Even fewer Americans have an understanding how the indigenous fascist groups of the 1930s still exert a considerable effect on our daily life and the political atmosphere.
Hitler’s dream of uniting all German-Americans under the fascist American Bund was a resounding failure as most German-Americans chose to remain loyal to their adopted country. Hitler’s grandiose plan of creating widespread racial discord met with only limited success. Both the Detroit, Michigan and the Beaumont, Texas race riots were inflamed by the Nazi affiliated Klan and other fascist groups and caused considerable delay in the production of war material. Hitler must have been overjoyed upon seeing one of the major political parties, the Republicans to conduct vicious anti-Semitic campaigns in several states.
In this brief look at the fascists in the 1930s less than twenty of the over 700 fascist groups that were operative during the 30s have been covered in any depth. Many of these groups received money directly from Nazi Germany and from the same wealthy industrialists that were knowingly building the Third Reich’s war machine. Yet, it has been clearly established that these groups exerted a large political influence during their brief existence.
An influence, that extends to this day in the form of anti-labor laws such as the right to work laws and the Taft-Hartley Act. Both have direct connections with fascism, the right to work laws were passed largely due to the lobbying efforts of the fascist group Christian American. Republican House member Fred Harley was an open advocate of Japan and Germany in the halls of congress right up to the moment Pearl Harbor was bombed. Today the United States is the only major western governments that outlaws a general strike and as such is in violation of UN policy on unions and labor. General strikes are commonplace in France and the rest of Europe. This extreme anti-labor agenda is still readily apparent today in the Republican Party.
Hitler’s greatest success in creating domestic unrest came in the halls of congress. Many of the conservative members of congress from both parties hiding under the banner of isolationism or pacifism were openly pro-fascist and were influential in delaying war production and aid to the allies. Several of these pro-Nazi congressmen received funds directly from Nazi Germany others indirectly through Viereck and Flanders Hall, the notorious Nazi publishing house in the form of royalties for books.
Additionally clear evidence of collusion between the high-ranking officials of the Republican Party and known Nazi agitators in every election year throughout the 1930s has been established.
As John Rogge learned in Europe, the Nazi infiltration was much more extensive than he had believe as prosecuting attorney for the sedition trial. He learned that an ex-president, Herbert Hoover a former vice president of FDR, a United States Senator and other high ranking officials had conspired with the Nazis to prevent the election of Roosevelt in 1940.
As Rogge wrote his final report, he knew that the report would never be published. The fascist industrialists and politicians were too powerful to be exposed. They would be protected. Rogge continued writing his report not suspecting that his report would end his career. However, Rogge would suffer the same fate as the man he replaced in the sedition trials, William Maloney. He would be dismissed for uncovering the truth about American fascists. Only a few cries of protest were ever voiced in the press over the dismissal of Rogge. Even worst to further discredit the relentless Nazi hunter the fascist element sought to besmirch his brilliant and honorable career by labeling him as a communist.
The good General Smedley Butler suffered the same fate earlier in revealing the fascist plot against Roosevelt. The general was labeled a crackpot in the press for saving the country from fascism. This pattern of dismissal of those that opposed fascism strongly was repeated time and again. By 1943 with the Nazis clearly defeated on the battlefields of Europe, it would reach epidemic proportions. Meanwhile the careers of those that aided the Nazis steadily advanced. The following chapter will reveal how this was an integral part of the change in tactics of the native fascist once it was clearly the Nazis was loosing the war.
A further exhaustive review of all the fascist groups of the 1930s is beyond the scope of any single book let alone a single chapter. Further review of these groups would only confirm the findings so far, and exposed additional ones and will be left for other writers. In this brief chapter, several roots of the far right wing groups have been traced back to the fascist groups of the 1930s. Most notably the American Security Council, which exerted a large influence on the Reagan administration, was formed from the remnants of three pro-Nazi groups. Other groups such as the Aryan Nations and the Posse Comitatus likewise have their roots grounded in the fascist of the 1930s.
Some of the connections that have been exposed in this chapter maybe more embarrassing than an ideological tie. Such maybe the case with the link between Gerald Ford and the American First group. Others such as Regnery confirmed his fascist ideology by his subsequent actions. Nor does the inclusion of a group imply that all members of that group are fascist ideologues, it simply means that a significant element of that group are either fascist or predisposed to fascist ideology.
One of the greatest deterrents to expose other connections lies in the fact that much of the evidence still lies in government vaults classified as secret. The efforts of Congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman to have all documents from that era open to public scrutiny should be applauded. As more and more of those documents are available it only confirms how vast the fascist network was and how justice was subverted. The Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act was passed in 1998. In the three years since passage, some three million pages of previous classified documents have been released.
Among the documents released in April 2001 were those devoted to Emil Augsburg, a member of the Wannsee Institute, the former Nazi think tank that plotted the massacre of the Jews. Augsburg became part of the Gehlen network, a network of former Nazis employed by the CIA following the war. Augsburg should have been tried as a war criminal. With each release of additional files a clearer picture will emerge of the relationship between the CIA and the Nazis.90
As to what these documents may reveal is best summed up with the following quote from the Nazi War Criminals Interagency Working Group, a site maintained by the United States government.
"Clearly the information contained in these still classified files will prove to be embarrassing to our government. In the name of containing Soviet aggression, many hard-core, high ranking Nazis were welcomed into the camp of the Western Allies. Men like *General Adolf Heusinger,* who served as Deputy Chief of Operations and Planning for the entire German armed forces. A man so close to Hitler that he was literally standing next to him on July 20, 1944 when the room they were in blew up in what ultimately proved to be a failed assassination attempt. * Nevertheless, Heusinger was welcomed by the western allies after the surrender and rose to new heights in the postwar period when, on April 1, 1961, his appointment as Chairman of the Permanent Military Committee of "NATO" with an office in the Pentagon was announced by none other than President John F. Kennedy. "91
The second deterrent comes from the media itself both the popular broadcasting networks and the publishers and their lack of enthusiasm to out right sabotage of efforts to expose the connections. With the advent of the Internet the propaganda value of the popular media and press has been diminished. However, this is a two-edge sword the far right groups have been quick to adapt to new technologies. Nevertheless, even now there are those that advocate censorship of the net. Help fight to keep the net free of both government censorship and that of private censorship.
The reader should also keep in mind that Hitler didn't rise to power in a revolution. The notorious fascist Huey Long once remarked that the U. S. would be the only country that elected a fascist government. Many of the points established in this chapter will be expanded in later chapters detailing the gradual loss of freedoms in the ever relentless march of creeping fascism and corporate rule.
|Posted: Thu Apr 06, 2006 5:39 am Post subject: The Plot Against Roosevelt
|The 1930s: Nazis Parading on Main Street Part 1: The Plot Against Roosevelt
by Glen Yeadon and John Hawkins
Nazi Hydra In America
One cannot hope to gain an understanding of fascism in America without first looking at its roots in the 1930s. For most readers, the 1930s evoke images of the Great Depression and Dust Bowl. However, this wrenching decade of world economic turmoil involved far more serious events. From the beginning of the decade, events were conspiring to unleash on an unsuspecting world the horrors of the Second World War and the unfathomable inhumanity of the Holocaust. The Second World War would go on to shape the geopolitical scene for the remainder of the century. Claims arising from the Holocaust would still be front-page headlines as the world entered the 21st century.
The 30's were a decade in which Nazis openly paraded, unopposed, in the streets of America and were supported by many. Much of the details of 1930's fascism are still shrouded in secrecy. It has been over a half-century since the end of the war, yet news is still surfacing of corporate America's dealings with the Nazis. As of yet, no one has exposed, in a comprehensive manner, the connections between the 1930's fascists and today's American right wing. Many of the events of the decade have been quietly swept under the rug, such as the plot against Roosevelt. The press downplayed the assassination attempt at the time and even today, most people are still unaware of it.
Just as economic hardships in Germany led to the rise of Hitler, many Americans hit by the depression joined the fascist ranks. Likewise, it was the long and deep recession of the 1980s that lead to a reemergence of fascism, not only in the United States but worldwide, as the world transformed from the industrial age to the information age.
In the 1930s membership in fascist groups expanded, with some groups claiming over a million members. This influence extended to the very end of the twentieth century. Many of today's far right extremist groups were founded by former pro-Nazis, an example being the Posse Comitatus founded by former Silver Shirt leader, Henry Lamont Beach. Other far right extremist groups, such as the World Anti-Communist League, are rife with former pro-Nazis and even Nazi war criminals. The Republican Party has been infested with Nazi war criminals. Many of the ethnic heritage groups the Republican Party set up under Nixon are nothing short of havens for former Nazi war criminals. The American Security Council founded in the 1950s was formed by elements from three pro-Nazi groups of the 30s, and exerted a serious influence on the Reagan administration, as did the LaRouche fascist group.
The rhetoric of today's right-wing extremists is telling evidence of their connection to the fascists of the 30s. The current wild-eyed claim among many in militia groups about Russian or UN troops massing on the Canadian border is nothing but recycled rhetoric from the fascists of the 30s. The 1960s right wing group, the Minutemen, made a similar claim. Their version had the Red Chinese massing along the Mexican border for an invasion. This too, can be traced back to the 30s, when fascists claimed Jews were massing along the Mexican border for an invasion.
With the exception of Russia, Hitler never invaded a country without first unleashing his agents to create domestic unrest. The United States was no exception. The Nazi's web of intrigue in the United States extended far beyond the use of spies and noisy street agitators such as the Silver Shirts. The Nazis found willing accompanists in the media, the halls of Congress, as well as corporate boardrooms.
Fortunately, the fringe right has always been badly fragmented indeed; it would be cause for great concern to see a consolidation today among the various groups. However, the fragmentation of the 30s was even greater than it is today.1 There were well over 700 different fascist groups during the 30s. The American-National-Socialist Party, German-American Bund, Christian Front, the Silver Shirts, America First Committee, the Christian Mobilizer, National Worker's League and the Committee of One Million were some of the more prominent fascist groups at the time. In addition, many factions of the Mother's Movement were openly fascist.
There are numerous parallels between the fascist groups of the 1930s and the far right groups of today, they are as striking as they are disturbing, and should stand as a vanguard, warning of the hidden agenda of right wing elements in this country. Among the many common elements between yesterday's fascists and today's far right groups are the intense hatred of minorities and unions, isolationism, destructive division, nationalism and religion. The Identity religion common to so many of today's far right groups will be shown to have evolved directly from fascist groups of the 30s.
However, the real story of fascism from the 30s and 40s is one of traitors and seditionists escaping justice after the war's end. As the following quote taken from Facts and Fascism by George Seldes shows:
"Only the little seditionist and traitors have been rounded up by the FBI. The real Nazi Fifth Column in America remains immune. And yet there is evidence that those in both countries who place profits above patriotism---and fascism is based entirely on profits although all of its propaganda speaks of patriotism---have conspired to make America part of the Nazi Big Business system. Thurman Arnold, assistant district attorney of the United States, his assistant, Norman Littell, and several congressional investigations, have produced incontrovertible evidence that some of our biggest monopolies entered into secret agreements with the Nazi cartels and divided the world among them. Most notorious of all was Alcoa, the Mellon-Davis-Duke monopoly which is largely responsible for America not having sufficient aluminum with which to build airplanes before and after Pearl Harbor, while Germany had an unlimited supply. Of the Aluminum Corporation sabotage, and that of other leading companies, the press said very little, but several books have now been written out of the official record."2
It is this unbridled corporatism that is the very heart of fascism. Notice how the words of George Seldes written in 1943 are still true today about those that place profits above patriotism. The stated objective of the first Bush administration was to determine, which corporations were responsible for supplying Iraq with the equipment to produce chemical and biological weapons, and to bring them to justice. Ten years after the Gulf War, not a single corporation has been charged, and the media has quietly swept that pledge under the rug. As Seldes stated, they are immune.
More odious is that Dick Cheney, Secretary of Defense in the first Bush administration and the current vice-president, sold Iraq dual-use equipment during his tenure as CEO of Halliburton. Such equipment can be used to rebuild Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. As Secretary of Defense, Cheney awarded several contracts to Halliburton's subsidiary, Brown and Root Services, for reports as to how private companies could provide logistical support to troops in potential war zones. From 1992 to 1999, with Cheney at Halliburton's helm, Brown and Root was awarded a total of $1.2 billion in defense contracts. Here again is a revolving door between corporate America and government. A door leading only to servitude. Not one mention of these deals was made in the press during the 2000 election campaign. Nor was the failure to prosecute the companies that supplied Iraq with the weapons of mass destruction ever mentioned. While the press viciously accused President Clinton of wagging the dog after UN inspectors were forced to leave Iraq, they made no mention of Cheney selling dual use equipment to Iraq.
Here we have the heart of the problem of the next century: corporate power. Corporations have acquired too much power. They have become so powerful they can openly flaunt our labor laws, our environmental laws and even sell materials for weapons of mass destruction without fear. The problem has become so widespread, and corporations have become so powerful, that society now serves the corporations rather than corporations serving society.
In short, as we progress into the new century, the right wing issues at the forefront of today's political scene are nothing more than recycled pro-fascist issues of the 30s. It is an agenda of corporate rule. The GATS treaty currently being negotiated and the now-dead Multi-Lateral Investment Agreement, are nothing more than attempts to go global with fascist corporatism.
Due to the depths of the depression the early 1930s were rife with grandiose plots. In the fall of 1933, Americans learned of a sensational plot by General Art Smith and his Khaki Shirts. Smith, a soldier of fortunate had formed a tight knit band of around thirty to one hundred followers. Smith was a raging anti-Semitic and the Khaki Shirts had killed a heckler in New York City in July. As his reputation grew so did his ambitions. Smith’s idol was Mussolini and he boasted that a million men would follow him and they would kill every damn Jew in the United States. He announced he would march on Washington and seize the government much as Mussolini had done in Italy. Fortunately, Smith was arrested In Philadelphia on October 12 upon a tip police received about an arms cache.113
There is no better place to begin studying the fascism of the 1930s than to start with the one element that was common to all of these fascist groups, and at the heart of their ideology. Fortunately, such an element exists simply it was the visceral hatred of Roosevelt and liberalism by the native fascist. It would take until the 1990s before we would see such a vicious level of hate displayed in mainstream politics again, with the Republican attack on President Clinton. Both events show how far right-wing extremists will go to gain power and subvert democracy.
There is no better event to begin with than the attempted coup d'etat against Roosevelt financed by Irenee du Pont along with the Morgans and a few other wealthy industrialists of the time. Others involved with the plot were Robert Clark, heir to the Singer Sewing machine corporation, Grayson Murphy, Director of Goodyear, and the Pew family of Sun Oil. During the war, all three of these corporations were involved in aiding of the Nazi empire. Singer's plant located on the east side of the Elba was used to manufacture machine guns. Today, Singer has given up the sewing machine business and is now engaged in defense contracting.
Central to the plot were two groups: the American Legion and the Liberty League. The American Legion was formed and financed by the Morgans and Murphy in 1919 to be used primary to break strikes. Several high-ranking officials from the American Legion were associated with the plot: William Doyle, a former state commander of the American Legion and Gerald MacGuire, a former commander of the Connecticut American Legion.
Irenee, the power behind the du Pont throne at the time, held a controlling interest in General Motors. He was an avid fascist and supporter of Hitler, tracking Hitler's career closely from the 1920s. On September 7, 1926, du Pont gave a speech before the American Chemical Society, in which he advocated the creation of a race of supermen. Injecting special drugs into them during childhood would create these supermen. Not every child would receive such injections; du Pont insisted that only those of pure blood would get the injections.96
Throughout the 1930s, the du Ponts invested heavily in Hitler's Germany through their corporate empire. General Motors under the control of the du Pont family had invested thirty million dollars alone into I.G. Farben. Wendell Swint, du Pont's foreign relation's director knew that I.G. and Krupp had arranged to contribute one half of a percent of its payroll to the Nazi party. Swint testified before the 1934 Munitions Hearings that du Pont was fully aware that it was financing the Nazis through the Opal division of General Motors. Even more telling is the amount of financial backing the du Ponts provided pro-Hitler groups in the United States. Starting in 1933, du Pont provided financing for the American Liberty Lobby, Clark's Crusaders (who claimed 1,200,000 members) and the Liberty League.3
In 1934, Irenee du Pont and William Knudsen, the president of General Motors, along with friends of the Morgan Bank and others set into motion a plot to overthrow FDR. They provided three million in funding for an army of terrorists that was modeled after the French fascist group, Croix de Feu.4 The objective of the plot was to either force Roosevelt to take orders from this group of industrialists as part of a fascist style government or to execute him if he chose not to cooperate.
The plotters selected General Smedley Butler, a WWI hero to head the plot. Butler was overtly opposed to fascism and had spoken out denouncing Mussolini as a murderer and thug in 1931. The Italian government demanded an apology and President Hoover complied along with placing Butler under arrest for court-martial proceedings. Roosevelt then governor of New York spoke out against the charges against Butler. Roosevelt had been responsible for awarding Butler's Second Medal of Honor for his service in Haiti. President Hoover then backed down, and Butler received a mild reprimand for refusing to retract his words.
The plotters had selected Butler because of his immense popularity among veterans. Butler had spoken words of encouragement to the Bonus Marchers and was relentless in his pursuit for better treatment of American veterans. Gerald MacGuire and Bill Doyle first approached Butler at his home. Both were wounded veterans of WWI. Both played on Butler's sympathy for veterans. However, Butler was not an easy man to fool. After pleasantries were exchanged, the men discussed each other’s service in WWI. Then MacGuire worked up the nerve to present his plan to Butler.
According to MacGuire, they wanted Butler to attend an American Legion convention and give a speech in favor of the gold standard. Butler immediately asked about the bonus for the veterans. The best answer MacGuire could produce was that they wanted the veterans to be paid in gold and not "rubber" money. Butler was suspicious both MacGuire and Doyle were dressed in fancy tailored suits and they had pulled into his driveway with a chauffeured limousine. With his suspicions aroused Butler refused to give them an affirmative reply, but he left the door open a crack to learn more.
Unbeknownst to the plotters however, Butler was a man of honor and believed in the constitution and democracy. He had a reputation of absolute honesty and was careful in how his name was used and by whom his name was used by. Stringing MacGuire along, Butler attended several more meetings with MacGuire before the latter left for Europe.
MacGuire was a bond salesman for Clark and had been sent to Europe to study how fascist in Europe used veterans. Upon his return from Europe, MacGuire once again sought out Butler. Additional meetings followed, including one in which MacGuire laid out 18 thousand dollar bills to prove that he had enough funding and to alleviate any concerns Butler had. At the same meeting MacGuire wanted Butler to attend an American Legion Convention with 200 hundred or so of Butler's friends. Butler refused to attend. Again he was suppose to give a speech in favor of the gold standard.
By insisting on an endorsement of the gold standard MacGuire aroused Butler’s suspicions and concerns of an ulterior motive. In one meeting MacGuire implied that they had men inside the Roosevelt Administration that kept them fully informed to convince the reluctant general to join his plot. Butler noted that McGuire had correctly predicted the dismissal of officials from the Roosevelt administration. He also noted that McGuire had correctly predicted that the American legion would endorse the gold standard. Additionally, Butler did observe that other events MacGuire predicted came true in several cases.
In another meeting, MacGuire threatened that if Butler did not accept leadership of the plot that General Douglas MacArthur would replace him. MacGuire claimed that the Morgans favored MacArthur but that he had held out for Butler. Another name mentioned, in case Butler refused to head the plot was former American Legion head Hanford MacNider of Iowa. MacArthur was very unpopular among the veterans for leading the charge against the bonus marchers. MacNider was also unpopular with veterans for opposing early payment of the bonus. MacGuire noted this and informed Butler that MacNider would soon switch his view on the bonus. Within a week Butler noted MacNider's switch.
There were other meetings with Butler, who eventually demanded to meet with the leaders of the plot. Clark then met with Butler and offered him a bribe to read a speech (once again favoring the gold standard) before the American Legion written by John W. Davis, a former Democratic presidential candidate, and chief counsel to J.P. Morgan. Butler bristled at being offered a bribe. Clark backed off, and announced that he was withdrawing his own support from the effort. In response, the plotters brought in Frank N. Belgrano JR, a senior vice president of the Gianinni's Bank of Italy that handled Mussolini's business accounts to head the American Legion. Giannini also founded the Bank of America. Belgrano remained an official of Bank of America until after the death of the founder, Giannini after which, Belgrano founded Transamerica.
Eventually MacGuire had to confess to Butler that the plot involved replacing Roosevelt. MacGuire suggested that Roosevelt was tired and needed an assistant to run the country while he attended to ceremonial activities much like the King of Italy, who had relinquished such power to Mussolini. Butler bristled at the idea.
In July, the Morgan-Mellon controlled press (including Henry Luce's Fortune magazine) unleashed a propaganda blitz extolling the virtues of fascism. In August, the American Liberty League appeared. Butler had been informed of the appearance of this group as part of the plot beforehand.
Morgan and du Pont cronies (including John J. Raskob) funded the League. Included in the League's advisory council were Dr. Samuel Hardin Church, who ran the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh, W.R. Perkins of National City Bank; Alfred Sloan, CEO of GM; Joseph M. Proskauer, former New York Supreme Court Justice and the general counsel to the Consolidated Gas Company; J. Howard Pew of Sun Oil and the financier of the openly fascist Sentinels of the Republic; and David Reed, the Republican Senator from Pennsylvania who remarked on the floor of the Senate in May 1932: ``I do not often envy other countries and their governments, but I say that if this country ever needed a Mussolini, it needs one now."
Fearing the plot was about to climax with the appearance of the Liberty League, Butler wanted to go public with what he knew. However, he knew he would be ridiculed without someone else to collaborate his story. Seeking out help from a newspaper reported that he trusted. Butler had Paul French interview MacGuire. In the interview with French, MacGuire confirmed what he had told Butler and also confirmed his ebullience for fascism as follows:
"We need a fascist government in this country… to save the nation from the communists who want to tear it down and wreck all that we have built in America. The only men who have the patriotism to do it are the soldiers, and Smedley Butler is the ideal leader. He could organize a million men overnight."75
Once French had confirmed the plot, Butler informed the Roosevelt administration. Roosevelt realized that with the backing of such a plot from such powerful business leaders, that he could not dismiss the plot as a crackpot scheme. Yet, Roosevelt was also well aware that by arresting the leaders of such industrial powerhouses of the day; it could create a national crisis that could abort the fledgling economic recovery and perhaps trigger another Wall Street crash.
To foil the plot, FDR had news of the plot leaked to the press and formed a special House committee to investigate the matter. The McCormick-Dickstein Committee agreed to hear Butler's story in a secret session that met in New York City on November20, 1934. Over four days the committee heard Butler and French present the details of the plot and the testimony of MacGuire. Although, Butler did not testify that MacGuire had offered him $750 for each speech he delivered if he included a remark favorable to the gold standard, a secret report reached the White House from Val O'Farrell, a former New York City detective confirming it.
Both McCormick and Dickstein described MacGuire's testimony as imminently self-incriminating. MacGuire was caught lying several times. The committee determined that MacGuire did have in his possession the thousand dollar bills mentioned and was in the proper location although he claimed to have been elsewhere. George Seldes noted that all of the principals in the case were American Legion Officials and conservative financial backers. Other administration officials urged the committee to get to the bottom of the case. McCormick indicated that Butler's evidence was not the first of the plot that in fact the committee had been in possession of other evidence for five weeks.
With many of the country's leading papers openly pro-fascist, coverage of the plot was promptly buried or dismissed as the ravings of a mad man. On November 22, the Associated Press struck a low blow at Butler in the headline "'Cocktail Putsch'" Mayor Says."108 Mayor LaGuardia had came out against Butler.
Butler however, received fresh support from James Van Zandt, who revealed to the press that he also had been approached by the plotters. Van Zandt was the head of the VFW. Van Zandt claimed that besides himself, MacArthur, Theodore Roosevelt Jr. and MacNider had all been sounded out. After announcing that Clark would be subpoenaed to appear before the committee as soon as he returned from Europe, the committee quickly adjourned without calling additional witness. Not a single name mentioned in all of the testimony ever appeared before the committee. Writer John Spivak learned that Frank Belgrano had been called to testify but had returned home after never being called by the committee.
The committee was formally dissolved on January 3. No other witnesses ever appeared before the committee. Apparently when one is rich enough, one is immune from the laws of the country, regardless of how damning the evidence is. On February 15 the committee released its preliminary findings.
In the last few weeks of the committee's official life it received evidence showing that certain persons had made an attempt to establish a fascist organization in this country. No evidence was presented and this committee had none to show a connection between this effort and any fascist activity of any European country. There is no question that these attempts were discussed, were planned, and might have been placed in execution when and if the financial backers deemed it expedient. This committee received evidence from Maj. Gen Smedley D. Butler (retired), twice decorated by the Congress of the United States. He testified before the committee as to conversations with one Gerald C. MacGuire in which the latter is alleged to have suggested the formation of a fascist army under the leadership of General Butler MacGuire denied these allegations under oath, but your committee was able to verify all the pertinent statements made by General Butler, with the exception of the direct statement suggesting the creation of the organization.
This, however, was corroborated in the correspondence of MacGuire with his principal, Robert Sterling Clark, of New York City, while MacGuire was abroad studying the various forms of veterans organizations of Fascist character This committee asserts that any efforts based on lines as suggested in the foregoing and leading off to the extreme right, are just as bad as efforts which would lead to the extreme left. Armed forces for the purpose of establishing a dictator- ship by means of Fascism or a dictatorship through the' instrumentality of the proletariat, or a dictatorship predicated on racial and religious hatreds, have no place in this country. 109
The total vindication of Butler was muffled by the press. The New York Times failed to report the committee's findings on the plot. Instead it chose to report on the committee's recommendation of registering all foreign propagandists. Buried deeply in the pages of the Times was a brief acknowledgement that Butler's story had been proven to be true. Much the same held true for the rest of the nation's newspapers. The story would be killed by not reporting it. John Spivak had been tipped off that the committee findings were censored. A veteran Washington correspondent had told Spivak, a Cabinet member had made the decision. The implication was that the release of certain names would embarrass the Democratic Party. At least two prominent Democrats who had been presidential candidates had been involved: John Davis, who now was a lawyer for the Morgans, and Al Smith, now a crony of the du Ponts. About a week after receiving the tip Spivak accidentally stumbled across the uncensored report. Spivak copied the uncensored version and then compared it to the official version. The censored portions of the testimony given by Butler and French can be found in The Plot to Seize the White House.107
Even more curious is the fact not a single person ever faced charges. Spivak went to the Justice Department and was informed that the Justice Department had no plans to prosecute. The American Civil Liberties Union issued an angry statement on the lack of justice stemming from the committee's findings.
The congressional committee investigating un-American activities has just reported that the of a Fascist plot to seize the government. . . was proved; yet not single participant will be prosecuted under the perfectly plain language of the federal conspiracy act making this a high crime. Imagine the action if such a plot were discovered among Communists! Which is, of course, only to emphasize the nature of our government as representative of the interests of the controllers of property. Violence, even to the seizure of government, is excusable on the part of those whose lofty motive is to preserve the profit system. . . 110
Obviously powerful forces had been brought to bear on the committee. Forces more powerful than the government, forces immune from the country's laws. Perhaps, Spivak explains why the plot failed best.
The takeover plot failed because though those involved had astonishing talents for making breathtaking millions of dollars, they lacked an elementary understanding of people and the moral forces that activate them. In a money-standard civilization such as ours, the universal regard for anyone who is rich tends to persuade some millionaires that they are knowledgeable in fields other than the making of money. The conspirators went about the plot as if they were hiring an office manager; all they needed was to send a messenger to the man they had selected. 111
Four years after the formation of a congressional committee, the committee released a white paper concluding that certain persons had attempted to establish a fascist government. Further investigations disclosed that over a million people had contracted to join the terrorist army and that Remington, a du Pont subsidiary, would have supplied the arms and munitions5.
As the du Ponts saw their plot crashing in around them, they chose to work within the system to gain power just as Hitler did after the failed Beer Hall Putsch. In the1936 presidential race, the du Ponts and the American Liberty League backed Alf Landon.
The fascist groups initially had agreed to back Father Coughlin's third party candidate, Bleakley. After agreeing to back Bleakley, Fritz Kuhn, the leader of the American Bund visited Nazi Germany ahead of the election and conferred with the leaders of the Nazi party. At the urging of Hitler's henchmen he returned backing Landon and urged other fascists to do the same.
|Posted: Mon Jun 26, 2006 2:35 am Post subject: Republicans, Nazis & Elections
|The 1930s: Nazis Parading on Main Street
Part 2: Republicans, Nazis & Elections
The Nazi Hydra in America
With its pro-business agenda, and the fascist views of the leaders of corporate America, the Republican Party soon became laden with fascists.
Even before Hitler and the Nazis seized power in Germany, the Nazis were already actively involved in American politics and elections. Shockingly, the Nazis did not have to infiltrate the party; many were already employed at high levels in the national or state Republican Party organizations.
In October 1928, Edmond Furholzer, a pro-Nazi publisher from Germantown, NY presented the New York State Republican Committee with an offer that for twenty thousand dollars he would deliver the German vote to Hoover. With Hoover's chances looking good, and it being late in the campaign, Furholzer's offer was turned down.
Furholzer was hardly an obscure Nazi, and was a leading figure in the hard right of Yorkville, a heavily German neighborhood of Manhattan. The Republican State Committee adopted many of Furholzer's proposals in 1928, and four years later, when Hoover's chances were dismal; Furholzer's help was gladly accepted. In fact, during the 1932 campaign, Furholzer worked endlessly for the Republican National Committee, campaigning tirelessly for Hoover in New York State. He smeared Roosevelt as the new Wilson, the man that had destroyed Germany.92 In 1933, Furholzer returned to Germany.
By 1934, the Nazis had only been in power for less than a year, but already were active in placing their agents or pro-Nazis into positions of power. On February 22, 1934, the Republican Party merged their Senatorial and Congressional Campaign Committees into a single organization independent of the Republican National Committee.
Senator Daniel Hastings of Delaware and Representative Chester Bolton announced the merger. Just before the merger, the two campaign committees hired Sidney Brooks, the long-time head of research at International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT). ITT was one of many American corporations that went to extraordinary means to continue trading with the Nazis after war broke out.
Shortly after Brooks took charge, he made a frantic visit to New York. On March 4, 1934, he went to Room 830 of the Hotel Edison, a room rented to a Mr. William Goodales of Los Angles. Goodales was in fact William Dudley Pelly. The meeting concluded with an agreement to merge the Order of 76 with the Silver Shirts. Later Brooks would stop at 17 Battery Place, the address of the German Consulate General.
Brooks was a member of the Order of 76, a pro-fascist group. The Order of 76 application required the fingerprints of the proposed member, and certain details of their life. Brooks' application revealed that he was the son of Nazi agent Colonel Edwin Emerson and that he chose to use his mother's maiden name to conceal his father's identity.80 Emerson was a major financial backer of Furholzer and his paper.
Thus, as early as 1934, the Republican Party was collaborating with Nazis and pro-fascist groups at a high level. This would not be the last example of collaboration between high level Republicans and Nazis, as the following headlines make clear.
On October 22, 1936, the New York Post broke the following story.
"Nazi Publicist On G.O.P. Payroll
To win votes for Landon and Bleakley, the Republican State Committee is employing on its payroll a staff of propagandists identified with local Nazi organizations, the Post learned today.78"
On October 30, 1936, the New York World-Telegram revealed additional details.
"U.S. Nazi Attack on Jews Is Laid to Republicans
Anti-Semitic Radio Speeches by Griebl, Others sponsored by G.O.P
Fritz Kuhn Among Speakers in Regular Broadcasts over WWRL
The Republican Party had been sponsoring radio broadcasts by American Nazis to win German votes, it was disclosed today. One of the recent speakers was Dr. Ignatz T. Griebl a national Nazi leader and pronounced anti-Semitic…79"
The hiring of Brooks in 1934 to head up the joint election campaign committee, and the headlines from 1936 sets up a pattern of collaboration between elements of the Republican Party and the Nazis. While the use of a false name by Brooks provides some means of deniability, his pro-fascist views were hardly a secret. However, the earlier involvement of the Republican State Party with Furholzer would render any deniability moot. There is no deniability for the 1936 headlines, as all were well known Nazis.
The more damaging second quote provides proof that the Republican Party leadership was willing to promote Nazi racism. In fact, an integral part of the Nazi battle plan was the promotion of racial riots or division within the United States to weaken or prevent the U.S. from entering the war. Such collaboration with the Nazis was tantamount to treason. Hitler and his agents in the United States must have been very pleased that leaders of the Republican Party were willing to promote and incite civil unrest.
This example of vicious anti-Semitic campaigns by Republican leaders was not an isolated incident. In fact, it was commonplace. In the 1938 Minnesota governor's race, leading officials of the Republican Party conducted another vicious anti-Semitic campaign, this one to defeat Farmer-Labor Governor Elmer Benson.
Benson's inaugural address on January 5, 1937 placed him on the left end of the New Deal. FDR had endorsed Benson in 1936. The Republican Party considered it a declaration of war. Among the issues Benson supported were:
A two-year extension on the mortgage moratorium for farmers.
- A technical assistance program to assist and promote cooperatives.
- Union wages for state employees.
- The creation of a state commission on youth.
- Free transportation for rural high school students.
- Repeal of the criminal syndicalism laws (remember the Wobblies?)
- Creation of a state housing agency.
- The development of a state owned cement plant.
- Increased benefits for the disabled, people on relief, and the aged.
- A constitutional amendment enabling the state to produce and sell electrical power to municipalities.
- A state liquor dispensary.
- New provisions in the state's unemployment benefits--including benefits for striking workers.85
Few of Benson's proposals became law as his program was effectively blocked in the state senate. Central to Benson's programs was a restructuring of the tax code, which passed the state house of representatives intact. Some of the provisions were:
1. Complete removal of the state tax levy of homes and homesteads up to the value of $4,000.
2. Taxing of the net income of individuals and corporations on a graduated basis so that a large share of local school taxes would be replaced by state income tax revenues.
3. Increased taxes on accumulated wealth, including mining companies, so that the state budget could be balanced.
4. Increased taxes on chain stores.85
The conservatives in the Senate ignored the House tax bill until a few days before the legislative session closed, resulting in a special session. The Twin City press ran article after article denouncing the Farmer-Labor Party while citing such business leaders as Charles Fowler of Northern States Power, Mr. Montague representing the Steel Trust, Aleck Janes of Great Northern Railroad, and Aaron Youngquist of Minnesota Power and Light. With the press at the beck and call of business leaders clamoring that the Farmer-Labor Party was driving business out of the state, Benson's tax proposals failed to pass the Senate, but the stage was set for a bitter election campaign the following year.
In 1938, the Republican Party, with Harold Stassen heading the state ticket, ran two campaigns. One, a high road campaign by Stassen, the other a dirty campaign headed by the old guard within the Republican Party. Led by Ray P. Chase, this second campaign set new lows. Chase's vehicle for running this second campaign was the Ray P. Chase Research Bureau. Financing his efforts were some of Minnesota's business elite: George Gillette, President of Minneapolis Moline; J. C. Hormel, the meat packer; James Ford Bell, Northwestern Bank; Colonel Robert McCormick, owner of the Chicago Tribune; and George Belden of the Citizens Alliance.
To accomplish his goal, Chase used both legal and illegal methods. Files were stolen from the State Relief Department and Farmer-Labor members were scanned for communist activity. Dean Edward Nicholson supplied data about left wing student organizations on the University of Minnesota campus. One of the students labeled a dangerous radical was Eric Sevareid. Chase produced and distributed the red baiting pamphlet, Are They Communists or Catspaws. After the pamphlet's introduction, Chase launched into a vicious anti-Semitic attack about an alleged conspiracy, equating Judaism with communism, and Governor Benson's role in it.
Chase's attack did not stop inside Minnesota. Using the services of Cyrus McCormick, Chase managed to get U.S. Congressman Martin Dies to hold hearings in late October on communist influence in the Farmer-Labor Party.85
To understand how the Republican Party could run election campaigns based on intense and vicious racist platforms; one needs to understand the attitude of the country towards Jews at the time. A few days after Kristallnacht, Roosevelt spoke out publicly expressing his anger and horror. A Gallup poll that month revealed that 94% of the people disapproved of the Nazi treatment of Jews, but 97% of the people also disapproved of the way Nazis treated Catholics. A Roper poll that same month revealed the deep anti-Semitic views in America. The poll found that only 39% of the people believed that Jews should be treated as everyone else, 53% believed that Jews were different and should be restricted, and 10% believed Jews should be deported. In the winter of 1938-1939, many had denounced helping "refu-Jews." Polls revealed 71-85% opposed increasing immigration quotes; 67% opposed admitting any refugees and 67% opposed a one-time admission of 10,000 refugee children.
Turning away the refugees aboard the St. Louis was a low point in the Roosevelt administration and perhaps indefensible in light of the Holocaust, but Roosevelt hardly acted in a vacuum. The public opinion was decidedly against admitting Jews. One can only guess at how much of the anti-Semitism prevalent at the time, was the direct result of the various anti-Semitic campaigns conducted by the Republican Party. It could not be a minor factor, as many of these anti-Semitic campaigns ran by Republicans equated Judaism with communism, as in the example of the 1938 Minnesota election.
The pattern of collaboration between the Republican Party and the Nazis extends further. On November 23, 1937, executives of General Motors and other corporate and political leaders met with Baron Manfred von Killinger, and agreed to a total commitment towards the Nazi cause. The agreement also called for the replacement of Roosevelt---preferably with Burton Wheeler of Montana. The agreement was secret but leaked to George Seldes and published in In Fact. The entire text of the agreement can be found in Facts and Fascism, a portion of which appears below.9
"The substance of the German suggestion amounts to changing the spirit of our nation as expressed by recent elections. That is possible but by no means easy. The people must become aware of the disastrous economic effects of the policies of the present administration first. In the wake of reorientation of the public opinion a vigorous drive must start in the press and radio. Technically it remains a question as to whether this drive may center around the Republican National Committee.
Farsighted businessmen will welcome conferences of this kind. A tremendous inspiration might come out of them. There is no reason why we should not learn of emergencies similar to those prevailing in our own country and the methods by which farsighted governments were trying to overcome them. It is also clear that manufacturers, who usually contributed to the campaigns of all candidates must realize that their support must be reserved to one, in whose selection they must take an active hand."
Each section of the document was written by one of the participants. A member of the United States Senate wrote the first paragraph of the quote above, a representative of General Motors wrote the second. Once again, it is clear from the first paragraph that leaders of the Republican Party were collaborating with the Nazis. It further establishes this pattern of collaboration over a period of several years. Nor would this be the last involvement of Nazis within the Republican Party. In 1940, a group of Republican congressmen accepted money from Hitler for their election campaigns.
The second paragraph above is of paramount importance. The leaders of corporate America did follow the prescription above for subverting democracy.
After the failure of Landon in the presidential race, and in defiance of Roosevelt's desire to improve working conditions for the average man, Knudsen and du Pont launched a speed-up system at General Motors. The system forced men to work at horrifying speed and many line workers died from the heat and the pressure.
Irenee du Pont personally paid out almost one million dollars to hire armed storm troopers modeled after the Gestapo, and equipped them with gas to sweep through his plants and beat any rebellious workers. He also hired Pinkerton to look through his industrial empire to spy on left-wingers, "malcontents," or labor leaders. This was at the same time he started to finance the notorious Black Legion in the Detroit area. He encouraged foremen at General Motors to join this group of terrorists.
The prime purpose of the Black Legion was to fire bomb union meetings, murder union leaders and terrorize all workers to prevent unionization. The Black Legion was linked to the Klan, and to the even more terrifying Wolverine Republican League. Members of this later group included several big business leaders. The Black Legion murdered at least 50 people, many of them black .6
Just as the backers of Hitler's were rich industrialists, so were the backers of fascism in the United States. Corporate America willingly entered into cartel agreements, which, in effect, granted them a monopoly. A second aspect of fascism that appealed to big business was its extreme anti-unionism. Professor Gaetano Salvemini of Harvard was quoted in the undergraduate daily, that a new fascism threatened America, the fascism of corporate business enterprise in this country. He also believed that 100% of American big business was in sympathy with fascism .8 At the very least support, for fascism was widespread among industrialists in this country, as the following quote from The New York Times from the Ambassador to Germany, William Dodd shows:
"A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy. I have had plenty of opportunity in my post in Berlin to witness how close some of our American ruling families are to the Nazi regime. On (the ship) a fellow passenger, who is a prominent executive of one of the largest corporations, told me point blank that he would be ready to take definite action to bring fascism into America if President Roosevelt continued his progressive policies.
Certain American industrialist had a great deal to do with bringing fascist regimes into being in both Germany and Italy. They extended aid to help fascism occupy the seat of power, and they are helping to keep it there.
Propagandists for the fascist groups try to dismiss the fascist scare. We should be aware of the symptoms. When industrialists ignore laws designed for social and economic progress they will seek recourse to a fascist state when the institutions of our government compel them to comply with the provisions." 7
The collaboration between the Republican Party and the Nazis was an ongoing effort throughout the 1930s. However, it would not reach epidemic proportions until the 1940 election. With the European continent already embroiled in war, and President Roosevelt espousing pro-British views, the Nazis were desperate to keep the United States out of the war. In a bizarre plot full of intrigue involving Texas oilman William Rhodes Davis, labor leader John L. Lewis, and Mexico, Nazis provided extensive funding to the Republican Party for the 1940 election.
W.R. Davis of Texas Oil had been supplying the Germany navy with oil since 1936, and was the owner of Eurotanker, a huge German refinery. For the complete story of Davis, the reader should see Dale Harrington's Mystery Man.93 Davis had arranged a deal to supply the Nazis with oil from Mexico. Since Mexico had nationalized its oil fields, including some owned by Davis, the Mexican oil market was boycotted by big oil, led by Standard Oil of New Jersey. The deal, therefore, was vital for the Mexican economy.
The outbreak of war in Europe also jeopardized Davis' road to riches. Davis used his friendship with John L. Lewis to arrange a meeting with Roosevelt early in 1940 in which he proposed a wild peace plan to FDR. Roosevelt was cool to the plan and informed Davis that any peace plan would have to come through official channels. Davis rushed to Europe, arriving in Italy, and then traveling to Germany. There he met with Goering. Central to Davis' plan was the removal of Hitler; the Nazis would remain in power under Goering. Upon his return, Roosevelt refused to meet with Davis.
Besides the peace plan, talk between Goering and Davis centered on the upcoming presidential election. The Nazis were desperately seeking the defeat of Roosevelt, although they were less than enthusiastic with the Republican candidates. They agreed the best chance of defeating Roosevelt was to back the Republicans rather than run a third party. Davis knew that Lewis was opposed to war and had informed the Nazis that Lewis had control over the election with his large block of union voters. Lewis was not pro-fascism. Instead, he feared that a new war would lead to a dictatorship and the placing of the CIO under emergency laws. In light of the Red Scare of 1919 one can hardly fault Lewis for his fears.94 Talk soon settled on how much money would be needed to defeat Roosevelt, with the final sum settled at five million dollars.
Joachim Herslet of the Reich Foreign Economic Ministry carried the plan to the United States. To obtain dollars, Goering had persuaded the Italians to release money from their fund used to finance fascist propaganda and espionage. An Italian courier, Luigi Podesta delivered the money to the German consulate in New York. Herslet informed the charge d'affairs of the German Embassy in Washington of his mission, and that he had five million dollars at his disposal. Davis received some of the money from Herslet, then opened accounts in the Bank of Boston, Irving Trust, Bank of America and Banco Germany of Mexico City.
On the eve of the Republican National Convention, money from this Nazi slush fund was used in a propaganda blitz for the isolationists. One Republican congressman received $3,000 for heading up a contingent of fifty isolationists. The Nazi money was well spent, as the convention closed with a party platform plank firmly opposed to US involvement in the war. The Nazis were especially pleased to note that the platform plank was taken almost verbatim from the full-page German propaganda ads placed in the New York Times on June 25.35 Stephen Day had been paid thousands of dollars to form the committee publishing the ad. Day, a Republican congressman from Illinois, would be named as a fascist collaborator by Maloney. The ad was signed by Representatives Samuel Pettingill, Harold Knudsen, John O'Conner and Hamilton Fish, and Senators Edwin Johnson, Bennett Clark, David Walsh, Burton Wheeler and Rush Holt.101 Both Lewis and Democratic Senator Burton Wheeler, a leading isolationist, spoke before the convention.
With this success behind them, the Nazis then decided to spring a similar effort on the Democratic convention. Central to the scheme was Davis distributing $100,000 to buy forty delegates from Pennsylvania to vote against Roosevelt. The Nazi press agent Kurt Sell arranged for several other Democratic congressmen to attend the convention on German Embassy funds. Sell also funded a number of anti-war ads in the Chicago Tribune on July 15.
Although the Nazis were not enthused over Willkie's nomination, they thought any president would be better than Roosevelt. With their slush fund of five million dollars, the Nazis surreptitiously helped Willkie through secret donations to various pro-Willkie clubs. Thomsen, the charge d'affairs of the German embassy, destroyed all receipts, so it may never be known how much money the Nazis funneled into the Republican Party, or to whom. It is not clear if the entire five million was spent. Supposedly, $3 million dollars was found in the embassy when the FBI seized it in December 1941. Nevertheless, the embassy had other sources of funding other than Herslet's funds. In fact, Thomsen did not cooperate with Herslet and ran his own separate campaign.
Perhaps the best summary of this plot is a quote from a report to the German Foreign Ministry by the German Ambassador Thomsen.
"Roosevelt's prospects of being elected a third time have declined…3. The election campaign maneuvers of John L. Lewis, chief of the CIO, and Senator Wheeler… Regarding 3. At this juncture John L. Lewis enters the arena with approximately 8 to 10 million votes controlled by him. He is determined to make ruthless use of his influence, and will do so in favor of strict isolationism. Lewis is pursuing that policy not indeed because of any pro-German sentiments, but because he fears that America's involvement in a war would mean the establishment of an American dictatorship and the placing of his organization under emergency laws. He is negotiating with Republicans at present and will support them in the campaign if Willkie publicly declares himself for keeping America out of all European conflicts. Lewis can throw his strength at will to Republicans or the Democrats, but this much is certain that he surely will not use it for Roosevelt. He may even, as he has already threaten to do, organize a third party of disgruntled Democrats, the Peace party, and in the person of closely allied Senator Wheeler put up a suitable candidate."99
While $5 million dollars seems a trivial amount today in a presidential campaign, in 1940 the amount was significant as the total expenditures by the Republican Party was slightly less than $15 million.
Regardless of whether the Nazis spent only $2 million or the full $5 million dollars, they were a major source of campaign funds for the Republicans in 1940. While the total amount of Nazis funds spent on the Republican 1940 campaign may never be known with any certainty, from the funds recovered in the embassy raid it is clear that at least $2 million was spent from the slush fund alone. Therefore the lower limit is at least $2 million. In short, a major proportion ranging from 15% to over 33% of the Republican campaign funds in 1940 came directly from the Nazis. Considering the fact the major industrialists were active supporters of the Nazis and large donors to the Republican Party, well over 50% of the Republican campaign funding in 1940 came either directly from Nazis in Berlin or those within the United States.
Following the Nazis, Davis likewise donated at least $48,000 to Willkie, bypassing the $5,000 federal limit with several methods such as donating to individual state parties. Davis also bankrolled the radio address of Lewis on October 21 in which Lewis announced his support for Willkie. In late October, Davis forwarded copies of his documents pertaining to his proposed peace plan to leaders of the Republican Party including Willkie, former President Hoover, Sam Pryor and Verne Marshall. Willkie decided not to use the material, fearing it might backfire. In the end, labor chose to remain loyal to FDR and Roosevelt won the election with 27 million votes to Willkie's 22 million.95
Moreover, the involvement of the Nazis in the 1940 election extended beyond the monetary donations and the bizarre plot of Davis. Top Republican leaders, including former President Herbert Hoover closely collaborated with high-level Nazi officials in Berlin to bring about the defeat of Roosevelt. Hoover's conniving with the Nazis in the 1940 election was confirmed in post-war interviews of Goering and Rubbentrop. Furthermore, Hoover was a secret member of the fascist American First group, which was dedicated to bring about Roosevelt's defeat.
The close association of the Republican Party with the Nazis was confirmed in captured documents. In one captured document written in anticipation of defeat the Nazis expressed hope for a Republican victory so that they might achieve an "easy peace." A small excerpt from the document in the appendix follows:
Right now, the chances for a separate peace with the West are a little better, especially if we succeed, through our propaganda campaign and our confidential" channels, to convince the enemy that Roosevelt's policy of "unconditional surrender" drives the German people towards Communism.
There is great fear in the U.S.A. of Bolshevism. The opposition against Roosevelt's alliance with Stalin grows constantly. Our chances for success are good, if we succeed to stir up influential circles against Roosevelt's policy. This can be done through clever pieces of information, or by references to unsuspicious neutral ecclesiastical contact men.
We have at our command in the United States efficient contacts which have been carefully kept up even during the war. The campaign of hatred stirred up by Roosevelt and the Jews against everything German has temporarily silenced the pro-German bloc in the U.S.A. However, there is every hope that this situation will be completely changed within a few months. If the Republicans succeed in defeating Roosevelt in the coming presidential election, it would greatly influence the American conduct of war towards us.
With the Battle of the Bulge raging in Europe the Republican candidate, Dewey lashed out against Roosevelt, that his call for unconditional surrender was prolonging the war and costing American lives.
From the evidence above the Nazis were deeply involved in the political process within the United States from at least 1932. However, the extent of that involvement is still shrouded in fog. Somewhere in the vaults of the United State and England incriminating files lie hidden that will expose the collaboration of many more individuals and corporations with the Nazis.
|Posted: Sun Mar 11, 2007 6:48 am Post subject: Gold Fillings, Auschwitz & George Bush.
|Gold Fillings, Auschwitz & George Bush By Glen Yeadon
The Nazis extracted the fillings of its victims after being informed by Degussa that the company could refine it into marketable gold bullion. Degussa was awarded an exclusive contract with the Nazis to refine all gold. The company was also joint owners with I.G. Farben of Degesch, a firm that produced Zyklon-B cyanide tablets used in the gas chambers. Due to the hoard of gold fillings stacking up at Auschweitz, Degussa built a smelter there. The bullion was then shipped back to Berlin and commingled with the Nazis gold stash. Undoubtedly some of it made its way back to the banker in charge of United Steel Works, Prescott Bush.
Gold Fillings, Auschwitz & George Bush
From the Streets of Little Beirut
By Glen Yeadon
There were little warning signs but few were paying attention when George Bush the poppy ran for president in 1988 and 1992. First during the campaign it surfaced that one of his campaign staffers was a distributor of pro-Nazi propaganda. Before the ink was dry on the individual’s resignation, further revelations showed there were in fact a number of ex-Nazis on Bush’s campaign staff including Laszlo Pastor and Yaroslav Stetsko. Pastor was a member of the Hungarian Arrow Cross during WWII and served as an envoy to Germany. The Arrow Cross was known to be excessively brutal even to their Nazi allies. Stetsko served as the prime minister of the short lived Ukrainian puppet government. During the short reign of this puppet regime over 100,000 Jews were slaughtered in Lvov. George Bush’s insensitivity towards victims of the holocaust is underlined by his employment of Fred Malek, a well-known collaborator with former Nazis in both his presidential campaigns.
Upon winning the presidential race, George Bush, the poppy placed his assets in a blind trust headed by his close friend William Stamps Farish III. That appointment should have triggered alarm bells that something very dark and sinister is buried in the Bush family’s past. His grandfather William Stamps Farish sold the Japanese the gasoline used in the attack on Pearl Harbor. Likewise, the elder Farish supplied Hitler’s war machine with oil and tetraethyl lead. George Bush’s father, Prescott was close friends with the elder Farish and remained so even after the elder’s testimony before congress provoked Harry Truman to cry out "This is Treason."
In fact, during the war, Prescott had three companies seized from him for trading with the Nazis. To understand the web of intrigue and follow the money from the Holocaust to the Bush family we need to start with the period immediately surrounding WWI. By 1916 August Thyssen could see that Germany had already lost the Great War and he needed to protect his fortune. His eldest son had been groomed to run the family steel business in the Ruhr. His second son Heinrich discreetly changed his citizenship from German to Hungarian and married the Hungarian aristocrat Baroness Margrit Bornemisza de Kaszon. Near the end of the war August Thyssen opened the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart in Rotterdam. Holland was a neutral country during the war and the new bank would serve as the perfect location to launder funds from the Thyssen Bank in Berlin and protect his fortune from allied financial demands. At the end of the war Heinrich now going by the name of Baron Thyssen Bornemisza de Kaszon moved to Rotterdam and became the principal owner of the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart. All that remained to be done in August Thyseen’s plan was to set up an American Bank.
In 1922, Averell Harriman traveled to Germany to set up a branch of W.A. Harriman in Berlin. Harriman had hired George Herbert Walker, George Bush’s grandfather to run both the New York and Berlin branches of his expanding investment firm. During his stay in Germany Harriman had met the Thyseen family and agreed to help the Thyssen’s set up an American bank.
In 1923, Germany was in economic shambles and Thyssen met with his friend General Ludendorff, who advised him that Germany’s hope lied with Hitler and the Nazi Party. Thyssen soon became a financial backer of the Nazis and Hitler.
Early in 1924, Hendrick J. Kouwenhoven, the managing director of Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart, traveled to New York. Meeting with Walker and the Harriman brothers, they founded the Union Banking Corporation. In 1926, August Thyssen died the eldest son Fritz expanded the Thyssen empire by creating United Steel Works. Thyssen also brought Fredich Flick on board. The Thyssen-Flick union was designed to suppress the union movement. As a result of the merger of Thyssen and Flick, George Walker hired his son in law Prescott Bush to manage the United Steel Works account. One division of United Steel Works consisted of both Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation and the Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company. Both were located in the mineral rich Silesian area of Poland. The arrangement was extremely profitable for all four men: Thyssen, Flick, Walker and Bush until the depression started in 1929. Congressional investigations after the war showed that United Steel had supplied 50.8 percent of the pig iron in Nazi Germany and likewise was a major supplier of all other ferrous based metal products needed by Hitler’s war machine. Hence, one of the largest munitions makers in Nazi Germany was funded by Prescott Bush, the father and grandfather of two future US Presidents.
Due to the depression, Harriman merged with Brown forming the Brown Brothers and Harriman firm. Internally the stock of Consolidated Silesian Steel Company was held by the Harriman 15 Corporation formed by Harriman and Bush. Two thirds of the stock was owned by Flick. By 1934, with Hitler in solid control of Germany the profits from the Thyssen-Flick union soared to over a hundred million. Both Union Bank and the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart were overflowing with money. Prescott Bush became managing director of Union Bank and took over the day-to-day operations of the German plan.
In 1939, the Nazis invaded Poland ending a dispute over taxes between Consolidated and the Polish government. The Nazis original plan was to replace the workers in Polish factories with Soviet prisoners. However, that portion of the Hitler-Stalin agreement was never implemented. Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation was located near the Polish town of Oswiecim. When the plan to use Soviet prisoners as forced labor fell through, the Nazis began shipping Jews, communists, gypsies and other minority populations to the camp the Nazis had set up. This was the beginning of Auschwitz. The reason Auschwitz was located there was because of the abundant supplies of coal which could be processed into aviation fuel. I.G. Farben soon built a plant near Auschwitz to take advantage of not only of the nearby coal deposits but also of the slave labor supply available at Auschwitz. According to a Dutch intelligence agent, Prescott Bush managed a portion of the slave labor force in Poland.
Thyssen and Flick sold Consolidated Steel to UBC. Under the complete control of Harriman and Bush’s management, the company became Silesian American Corporation, which became part of UBC and Harriman's portfolio of 15 corporations. As the 1930s progressed and it became clearer that war was imminent, Bush and Harriman hired the Dulles brothers to conceal the Nazi money and ownership in Union Bank. In concealing the involvement of the Nazis in Union Bank, Prescott Bush and Harriman undoubtedly knew that they were already engaged in an activity that was probably illegal and certainly not in the best of interests of their country. Once war broke out however, Bush’s activities on the behalf of the Nazis through Union Banking became tantamount to treason.
The reader should understand that the concealing of Nazis assets located in the United States through a maze of corporate shells often based in Switzerland was an integral part of the German battle plan. In fact, the Nazi had a word for it, tarnung or to camouflage. The primary aim of these concealed Nazi corporations was to wage economic warfare by creating production bottlenecks for their adversary. The reader should also be aware that two Americans were present during the secret meeting of the German elite that brought Hitler to power. Those two Americans were John Foster and Allen Dulles.
Two of the directors of Union Banking Groninger and Kouwenhoven, were Nazi directors of the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart, formerly the von Heydt Bank. Von Heydt was also a Nazi and has been identified as the intermediary between the Guaranty Trust and Adolf Hitler. Both Groninger and Kouwenhoven contributed lavishly to Himmler’s Circle of Friends. There were over forty firms around Auschwitz using slave labor from the death camp. Soon the Nazis had a massive store of gold from dental fillings, glasses and jewelry. The Nazis extracted the fillings of its victims after being informed by Degussa that the company could refine it into marketable gold bullion. Degussa was awarded an exclusive contract with the Nazis to refine all gold. The company was also joint owners with I.G. Farben of Degesch, a firm that produced Zyklon-B cyanide tablets used in the gas chambers. Due to the hoard of gold fillings stacking up at Auschweitz, Degussa built a smelter there. The bullion was then shipped back to Berlin and commingled with the Nazis gold stash. Undoubtedly some of it made its way back to the banker in charge of United Steel Works, Prescott Bush.
On October 20, 1942 the United States government seized Union Banking under the Trading with the Enemy Act. During that summer, The New York Tribune had exposed Bush and Thyssen whom it called Hitler’s Angel. Union Bank’s books revealed a myriad of Nazi money and holding companies. Officials realized they had only scratched the tip of the iceberg. On November 17, 1942, the government seized Silesian American Corporation and placed its operation under the Government Alien Property custodian office.
Following the war, authorities seeking to locate the Dutch Royal family’s jewelry discovered the transaction papers of the Silesian American Corporation in the books of Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart. The bank manager, H.J. Kounhoven came under intense scrutiny and was shocked by the discovery. Soon Kounhoven traveled to New York to inform Prescott Bush. Dutch authorities date the meeting as soon after Christmas 1947. Two weeks later, the otherwise healthy Dutch banker died of a heart attack. Coincidentally, this was the method of choice of the Gehlen network for liquidating people. The Nazis had perfected a method of inducing heart attacks that autopsies could not detect.
On February 8, 1951, Thyssen died in Argentina. Following his death, the Alien Property Custodian released the assets of the Union Banking Corporation to Brown Brothers Harriman. The remaining shareholders quietly cashed in their remaining shares. Prescott Bush received $1.5 million for his share in Union Banking’s blood money.
This brief article has only scratched the surface of the sordid association of Prescott Bush with the Nazis as he had yet a third company seized from him during the war. In his first run for senator, Prescott was defeated after his position within the eugenics movement was disclosed. George the poppy has followed in his father’s footsteps and retained many of the same family connections with the Nazis. For instance, as chairman of the Republican Party he presided over the formation of the Ethnic Heritage groups of the Republican Party. This was a reward for the Nazi quislings from Eastern Europe for helping in the election of Nixon as president. When two or more ethnic groups were vying for control over a particular group invariably the group with close ties to the Nazis won out. George also shows the same intense interest in population control. Perhaps it was for his beliefs in eugenics, George appointed Draper as his expert on population. Or perhaps it was more of a reward for past services rendered by Draper to the Bush family. Draper was the former general placed in control of the military government‘s economic division after the war. Draper was a rabid racist and member of the Eugenics Society. He was also a former employee of Dillion and Reed, the large Wall Street brokerage house that floated the largest German bond offerings including one for United Steel Works. In his position as economic czar of Germany, he stopped the dismantling of an I.G. Farben plant and was in the ideal slot to protect his former clients that armed Hitler, including Bush.
The same close associations are apparent with Bush junior. One interesting pattern in international relations is ready observed that the Israeli government moves to the hard right whenever a Bush is in the Oval Office. Considering, Israel has one of the best intelligence agencies in the world and a perhaps the most extensive data base on the holocaust, could the Israeli hard-liners be blackmailing the Bushes? Do they have a smoking gun that would at once end the political aspirations of the entire Bush clan as well as place the family wealth at risk for damages suffered during the Holocaust? One researcher already says the family wealth is at risk in such suits; the ties are that strong.
Any reasonable person understands that the tragedy of 9-11 was allowed to happen. Only the White House can order the interceptors to stand down, once an aircraft deviates from its flight plan or contact is lost. Within 30 minutes of the time the golfer’s plane that decompressed failed to follow directions from the control tower a fighter was alongside and shadowed the plane until it ran out of fuel and crashed in the midwest. The story that no fighters were available is simply a lot of Limbaugh. There are probably no less than a dozen or more airports within range of New York and Washington DC with fighter squadrons on standby. Yet, Bush wants us to believe that the entire East Coast was left unprotected with no fighters to provide air cover including the restricted airspace over the White House. The 9-11 tragedy was the Reichstag fire and the so-call Patriot Act, the enabling act for another fascist government.
With American blood about to stain the sands of the Mideast why hasn’t the media focused on the merchant of death, who armed Saddam? They would need to look no further than George Bush, the poppy and Vice President Dick Cheney. Poppy Bush is rubbing his hands with glee counting potential profits for his Carlyle Group. The group holds stocks in defense industries that armed Saddam during the Reagan years and provided arms for the US military. This is the way the Bush family makes it money. Just ask Prescott. It didn’t take Dick long to learn that secret. After the first Bush administration in which Cheney was the head of defense, he became head of Halliburton.While at Halliburton, Dick sold hundred of millions of dollars worth of dual use equipment to Iraq.
Stand behind the young soldiers and wave a flag for them, as they are mere canon fodder for this fascist clique. Don’t wave a flag for the most corrupt administration in the history of the country that’s hell-bent on installing a fascist regime beholding to no one other than corporate interests.
Your freedom depends on it.
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum
Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group